Learning

Endocrine System : Hormone Glands
  1. Ovary (Follicle And Corpus Luteum)
  2. Testis
  3. Pancreas
  4. Adrenal Glands (Medulla And Cortex)
  5. Thymus
  6. Parathyroid Gland
  7. Thyroid
  8. Posterior Pituitary Gland
  9. Anterior Pituitary Gland
  10. Hypothalamus
  11. Pineal Gland
  12. References



Ovary (Follicle)

Hormone Released: Estrogens
Hormone Structure: Steroid
Hormone Function: Develop & maintain female sex organs & characteristics; Initiates building of uterine lining
Hormone Regulator: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)




Ovary (Corpus Luteum)

Hormone Released: Progesterone & Estrogens
Hormone Structure: Steroid
Hormone Function: Influences breast development and menstrual cycles; Promotes growth and differentiation of uterine lining; Maintains pregnancy
Hormone Regulator: FSH & Luteinizing hormone







Testis

Hormone Released: Androgens (mainly testosterone)
Hormone Structure: Steroid
Hormone Function: Develop & maintain male sex organs & characteristics; aid sperm production
Hormone Regulator: FSH & LH




Pancreas

Hormone Released: Insulin
Hormone Structure: Polypeptide
Hormone Function: Lowers blood sugar; Increases glycogen storage in liver; Stimulates protein synthesis
Hormone Regulator: Blood glucose concentrations

Hormone Released: Glucagon
Hormone Structure: Polypeptide
Hormone Function: Stimulates glycogen breakdown in liver; Increases blood sugar (glucose) concentration
Hormone Regulator: Blood glucose & amino acid concentrations

Hormone Released: Somatostatin
Hormone Structure: Peptide
Hormone Function: Suppresses release of insulin & glucagon
Hormone Regulator: Nervous system, feedback from growth hormone







Adrenal Glands (Medulla And Cortex)

Hormone Released: Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Hormone Structure: Amino Acid Derivative (Catecholamine)
Hormone Function: Constricts blood vessels in skin, kidneys and gut which increases blood supply to heart, brain and skeletal muscles and leads to increased heart rate & blood pressure; Stimulates smooth muscle contraction; Raises blood glucose levels which increases available energy
Hormone Regulator: Sympathetic nervous system

Hormone Released: Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Hormone Structure: Amino Acid Derivative (Catecholamine)
Hormone Function: Constricts blood vessels throughout the body; Increases heart rate & contraction of cardiac muscles; Increases metabolic rate
Hormone Regulator: Sympathetic nervous system

Hormone Released: Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol & corticosterone)
Hormone Structure: Steroids
Hormone Function: Regulates blood glucose concentrations by affecting many aspects of carbohydrate metabolism; Affects growth; Decreases effects of stress and anti-inflammatories
Hormone Regulator: Corticotopin- releasing hormone (CRH) from hypthalamus; Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Hormone Released: Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone)
Hormone Structure: Steroid
Hormone Function: Regulates sodium, water & potassium excretion by the kidney
Hormone Regulator: Renin & Angiotensin

Hormone Released: Gonadocorticoids (mainly androgens (male sex hormones))
Hormone Structure: Steroid
Hormone Function: Contribute to secondary sex characteristics (particularly after menopause in women)
Hormone Regulator: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)







Thymus

Hormone Released: Several Thymosin & Thymopoietin hormones; Thymic humoral factor; Thymostimulin; Factor thymic serum
Hormone Structure: Peptide
Hormone Function: Stimulates T cell development in thymus & maintainence in other lymph tissue; Involved in some B cells developing into antibody-producing plasma cells
Hormone Regulator: Not known





Parathyroid Gland

Hormone Released: Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Hormone Structure: Peptide
Hormone Function: Increases blood calcium concentrations by stimulating calcium release from bone, promoting calcium uptake from intestinal tract and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidney; Decreases blood phosphate level
Hormone Regulator: Calcium concentrations in blood





Thyroid

Hormone Released: Thyroxine & Triiodothyronine
Hormone Structure: Amino Acid
Hormone Function: Develop & maintain female sex organs & characteristics; Initiates building of uterine lining
Hormone Regulator: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the brain

Hormone Released: Calcitonin
Hormone Structure: Peptide
Hormone Function: Inhibits calcium release from bone thus lowering blood calcium levels
Hormone Regulator: Blood calcium concentrations








Posterior Pituitary Gland


Hormone Released: Antidiuretic hormone
Hormone Structure: Peptide
Hormone Function: Increases water absorption from kidney; Raises blood pressure
Hormone Regulator: Blood osmolarity

Hormone Released: Oxytocin
Hormone Structure: Peptide
Hormone Function: Stimulates contraction of pregnant uterus & release of breast milk after childbirth
Hormone Regulator: Nervous system





Anterior Pituitary Gland

Hormone Released: Growth hormone
Hormone Structure: Protein
Hormone Function: Stimulates bone & muscle growth; Promotes protein synthesis & fat mobilization
Hormone Regulator: Hypothalamic hormones

Hormone Released: Prolactin
Hormone Structure: Protein
Hormone Function: Promotes production & secretion of milk in humans after childbirth
Hormone Regulator: Hypothalamic hormones

Hormone Released: Thryoid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Hormone Structure: Glycoprotein
Hormone Function: Stimulates production & secretion of thyroid hormones
Hormone Regulator: Blood thyroxine levels; Hypothalamic hormones

Hormone Released: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Hormone Structure: Polypeptide
Hormone Function: Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol & other steroids
Hormone Regulator: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the Hypothalamus; Blood cortisol levels








Hypothalamus

Hormone Released: Releasing & inhibiting hormones
Hormone Structure: Peptides
Hormone Function: Responds to signals from the nervous system &/or blood concentrations of circulating hormones by releasing hormones that act on the pituitary gland
Hormone Regulator: Blood & local levels of specific substances





Pineal Gland

Hormone Released: Melatonin
Hormone Structure: Amino Acid Derivative
(Catecholamine)
Hormone Function: Involved in circadian rhythms: Antigonadotropic effect. Exposure to light decreases release, darkness increases release
Hormone Regulator: Exposure to light/dark cycles




References

  • Campbell, N.A. 1990. Biology. Second Edition. Redwood City, CA: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.